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Tight coupling between glucose and mitochondrial metabolism in clonal beta-cells is required for robust insulin secretion

, : Tight coupling between glucose and mitochondrial metabolism in clonal beta-cells is required for robust insulin secretion. Journal of Biological Chemistry 284(47): 32395-32404

The biochemical mechanisms underlying glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells are not completely understood. To identify metabolic disturbances in beta-cells that impair glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, we compared two INS-1-derived clonal beta-cell lines, which are glucose-responsive (832/13 cells) or glucose-unresponsive (832/2 cells). To this end, we analyzed a number of parameters in glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolism, including mRNA expression of genes involved in cellular energy metabolism. We found that despite a marked impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, 832/2 cells exhibited a higher rate of glycolysis. Still, no glucose-induced increases in respiratory rate, ATP production, or respiratory chain complex I, III, and IV activities were seen in the 832/2 cells. Instead, 832/2 cells, which expressed lactate dehydrogenase A, released lactate regardless of ambient glucose concentrations. In contrast, the glucose-responsive 832/13 line lacked lactate dehydrogenase and did not produce lactate. Accordingly, in 832/2 cells mRNA expression of genes for glycolytic enzymes were up-regulated, whereas mitochondria-related genes were down-regulated. This could account for a Warburg-like effect in the 832/2 cell clone, lacking in 832/13 cells as well as primary beta-cells. In human islets, mRNA expression of genes such as lactate dehydrogenase A and hexokinase I correlated positively with HbA(1c) levels, reflecting perturbed long term glucose homeostasis, whereas that of Slc2a2 (glucose transporter 2) correlated negatively with HbA(1c) and thus better metabolic control. We conclude that tight metabolic regulation enhancing mitochondrial metabolism and restricting glycolysis in 832/13 cells is required for clonal beta-cells to secrete insulin robustly in response to glucose. Moreover, a similar expression pattern of genes controlling glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolism in clonal beta-cells and human islets was observed, suggesting that a similar prioritization of mitochondrial metabolism is required in healthy human beta-cells. The 832 beta-cell lines may be helpful tools to resolve metabolic perturbations occurring in Type 2 diabetes.


PMID: 19797055

DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M109.026708

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