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Titanium nanoparticle inhalation induces renal fibrosis in mice via an oxidative stress upregulated transforming growth factor-β pathway


, : Titanium nanoparticle inhalation induces renal fibrosis in mice via an oxidative stress upregulated transforming growth factor-β pathway. Chemical Research in Toxicology 28(3): 354-364

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (Nano-TiO2) are gradually being used extensively in clinical settings, industry, and daily life. Accumulation studies showed that Nano-TiO2 exposure is able to cause injuries in various animal organs, including the lung, liver, spleen, and kidney. However, it remains unclear whether exposure of Nano-TiO2 by inhalation causes renal fibrosis. Here, we investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) related signaling molecules in chronic renal damage after Nano-TiO2 inhalation in mice. Mice were treated with Nano-TiO2 (0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/week) or microparticle-TiO2 (0.5 mg/week) by nonsurgical intratracheal instillation for 4 weeks. The results showed that Nano-TiO2 inhalation increased renal pathological changes in a dose-dependent manner. No renal pathological changes were observed in microparticle-TiO2-instilled mice. Nano-TiO2 (0.5 mg/week) possessed the ability to precipitate in the kidneys, determined by transmission electron microscopy and increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen. The expressions of markers of ROS/RNS and renal fibrosis markers, including nitrotyrosine, inducible nitric oxide synthase, hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), heme oxygenase 1, transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), and collagen I, determined by immunohistochemical staining were increased in the kidneys. Furthermore, Nano-TiO2-induced renal injury could be mitigated by iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine and ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine treatment in transcription level. The in vitro experiments showed that Nano-TiO2 significantly and dose-dependently increased the ROS production and the expressions of HIF-1α and TGFβ in human renal proximal tubular cells, which could be reversed by N-acetylcysteine treatment. Taken together, these results suggest Nano-TiO2 inhalation might induce renal fibrosis through a ROS/RNS-related HIF-1α-upregulated TGF-β signaling pathway.

US$19.90

PMID: 25406100

DOI: 10.1021/tx500287f


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