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Distraction as a technique to control pain in pediatric patients during venipuncture. A narrative review of literature


, : Distraction as a technique to control pain in pediatric patients during venipuncture. A narrative review of literature. Professioni Infermieristiche 68(1): 52-62

Distraction is a non-pharmacological intervention aimed to reduce procedural pain in children. Venipuncture is one of the most widely used diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in pediatric patients. Analgesia during venipuncture may be efficiently achieved with distracting techniques. To describe active and passive distraction techniques to reduce distress in children undergoing venipuncture. Data from CINHAL, PubMed, ILISI and Cochrane's databases were used to review existing literature and primary and secondary studies published between 2003 and 2014 were included. Queries were obtained with keywords such as distraction, complementary therapies, pain, pediatric, the Boolean operators AND and OR were used. Twenty eligible articles out of the one hundred and forty-three retrieved (20/143) were selected; among these there were 3 systematic and 5 narrative reviews, 11 experimental and quasi-experimental studies and 1 observational study. Active and passive distraction techniques seemed extremely effective to reduce distress and pain in children undergoing venipuncture. Modest evidence of efficacy and absent side effects support this approach. Further RCTs are needed to compare the different types of existing active and passive distraction techniques. The presence of parents and the location where painful procedures are administered should be included in the assessment of this approach.Label="INTRODUZIONE">La distrazione è un intervento non farmacologico in grado di ridurre l’intensità del dolore procedurale nei bambini. Tra le procedure maggiormente diffuse, la venipuntura è una di quelle maggiormente applicate in area pediatrica, per scopi diagnostici e terapeutici. L’analgesia durante la venipuntura può essere efficacemente raggiunta con tecniche di distrazione. OBIETTIVO: descrivere l’efficacia delle tecniche di distrazione attiva e passiva per la riduzione del dolore, nei bambini sottoposti a venipuntura.Label="METODI">è stata realizzata una revisione della letteratura consultando i database CINHAL, PubMed, ILISI e Cochrane. Sono stati inclusi tutti studi primari e secondari pubblicati dal 2003 al 2013, utilizzando le query ottenute con le parole chiave distraction, complemetary therapies, pain, pediatric con l’operatore booleano AND e OR. RISULTATI: sono stati inclusi nella revisione 20 articoli eleggibili su un totale di 143 risultati analizzati, tra cui 3 revisioni sistematiche, 5 revisioni narrative, 11 studi sperimentali e quasi sperimentali, 1 studio osservazionale. In esse emerge come la distrazione, attiva e passiva è indicata sui bambini durante la venipuntura, al fine di ridurre il dolore. Tale approccio è supportato da modeste prove di efficacia e da assenti effetti collaterali. CONCLUSIONI: sono necessari ulteriori RCT per confrontare l’efficacia dei diversi tipi di distrazione attiva e passiva, integrando la presenza dei genitori e le caratteristiche dei luoghi ove cui vengono realizzate le procedure dolorose.

US$29.90

PMID: 25837616


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