geoscience.net logo
+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Intensity of play behavior as a potential measure of welfare: A novel method for quantifying the integrated intensity of behavior in African elephants


, : Intensity of play behavior as a potential measure of welfare: A novel method for quantifying the integrated intensity of behavior in African elephants. Zoo Biology 34(5): 492-496

To the authors' knowledge there is currently no discrete index to measure the integrated intensity of a play bout in mammals, despite the potential for using intensity and duration of play bouts as a measure of physical activity and welfare. This study was developed to test an equation that quantified the intensity and duration of play bouts in a particularly gregarious mammal, African elephants (Loxodonta africana) housed at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park in Escondido, CA. To quantify these behaviors, we created a scale of intensity and a subsequent equation that produces an index value, giving each unique bout a score. A compilation of these scores provides a range of intensity of play behavior that is a representative value for that particular herd at that point in time, and thus a database to which later bouts can be compared. It can be argued that play behavior is an indicator of positive welfare, and if quantifiable, it is our belief that it can be used as an additional measure of positive welfare in zoo housed animals. Here we present the methods and technique used to calculate a standardized Integrated Play Index (IPI) that has potential for use in other socially living species that are known to exhibit play behavior.

US$19.90

PMID: 26251201

DOI: 10.1002/zoo.21238


Other references

Aung, H.; Toossi, Z.; McKenna, S.M.; Gogate, P.; Sierra, J.; Sada, E.; Rich, E.A., 2000: Expression of transforming growth factor-beta but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, and interleukin-4 in granulomatous lung lesions in tuberculosis. The expression of transforming growth factor (TGF-beta 1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) were assessed in lung tissues from patients with tuberculosis. Vimentin, a constitutively exp...

Wagner, J.G., 1953: A study of the iron-gentisate reaction and its application. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. American Pharmaceutical Association 42(2): 104-106

de Groot, SJ., 1986: Dutch observations on rare fish in 1984. Annales Biologiques (Copenhagen): 41: 163

Kabra S.G.; Jain L.K.; Jhanwar J.C., 1978: Intra prostatic injection therapy to relieve obstructive symptoms of senile hyperplasia of prostate. Journal of the Anatomical Society of India 27(1): 57-58

Watanabe Y.G., 1989: Differentiation of prolactin cells in the fetal rat pituitary. Zoological Science (Tokyo) 6(6): 1188

Anonymous, 1987: Ground strains and tilts observed at Matsushiro (January 1970-March 1984). Jishin Yochi Renrakukai Kaiho = Report of the Coordinating Committee for Earthquake Prediction 38: 186-188

Held, K.D.; Powers, E.L., 1979: Protection of transforming DNA from X-irradiation-induced damage by .OH scavengers. International Journal of Radiation Biology and Related Studies in Physics, Chemistry, and Medicine 36(6): 665-669

Sternberg, Z.; Chichelli, T.; Sternberg, D.; Hojnacki, D.; Drake, A.; Liu, S.; Hu, Q.; Munschauer, F., 2014: Quantitative and qualitative pleiotropic differences between Simvastatin single and Vytorin combination therapy in hypercholesterolemic subjects. This cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that treatment with the combination of Ezetimibe/Simvastatin (Vytorin) leads to broader changes in the expression levels of immunomodulatory genes as compared to Simvastatin monotherapy. Illumina&ap...

Young, C.; Rozario, K.; Serra, C.; Poole-Warren, L.; Martens, P., 2014: Poly(vinyl alcohol)-heparin biosynthetic microspheres produced by microfluidics and ultraviolet photopolymerisation. Biosynthetic microspheres have the potential to address some of the limitations in cell microencapsulation; however, the generation of biosynthetic hydrogel microspheres has not been investigated or applied to cell encapsulation. Droplet microflui...

Alves, W., 1945: Intensive treatment of schistosomiasis with antimony. (Preliminary note). The results of attempts to cure schistosomiasis in 6 cases by intensive antimony therapy within two or three days are recorded. . At least 715 mgms. of sodium antimonyl tartrate was administered in 30 hours.