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Lithium Halomethylcarbenoids: Preparation and Use in the Homologation of Carbon Electrophiles

, : Lithium Halomethylcarbenoids: Preparation and Use in the Homologation of Carbon Electrophiles. Chemical Record 16(4): 2061-2076

α-Halomethyllithium carbenoids are useful homologating reagents which - reacting under proper reaction conditions as carbanions - enable the installation via nucleophilic addition of a reactive halomethyl fragment onto a preformed carbon-heteroatom bond. The pronounced thermolability represented - since seminal studies by Köbrich - the Achilles' heel of these reagents: the use of Barbier-type methodologies (i.e., the electrophile should be present in the reaction mixture prior to the formation of the carbenoid) was pivotal in order to suppress decomposition through α-elimination processes. Nowadays, the use of low temperatures (-78 °C) guarantees reliable procedures and, significantly, the employment of microreactor technologies allows external trapping to be performed even at higher temperatures as reported by Luisi. We will discuss the α-halomethyllithium-mediated homologations of a series of carbon electrophiles such as carbonyl compounds, imines, esters, Weinreb amides, and isocyanates.


PMID: 27381551

DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201600011

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