geoscience.net logo
+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Mechanistic insight of diabetic nephropathy and its pharmacotherapeutic targets: An update


, : Mechanistic insight of diabetic nephropathy and its pharmacotherapeutic targets: An update. European Journal of Pharmacology 791(): 8-24

NlmCategory="UNASSIGNED">Diabetic nephropathy (DN), a chronic complication of diabetes, is charecterized by glomerular hypertrophy, proteinuria, decreased glomerular filtration, and renal fibrosis resulting in the loss of renal function. Although the exact cause of DN remains unclear, several mechanisms have been postulated, such as hyperglycemia-induced renal hyper filtration and renal injury, AGEs-induced increased oxidative stress, activated PKC-induced increased production of cytokines, chemokines, and different inflammatory and apoptotic signals. Among various factors, oxidative stress has been suggested to play a major role underlying the onset and propagation of DN. It triggers several signaling pathways involved in DN, like AGEs, PKC cascade, JAK/STAT signaling, MAPK, mTOR, and SMAD. Oxidative stress-induced activation of both inflammatory and apoptotic signals are two major problems in the pathogenesis of DN. The FDA approved pharmacotherapeutic agents affecting against polyol pathway principally include anti-oxidants, like α-lipoic acid, vitamin E, and vitamin C. Kremezin and benfotiamine are the FDA approved AGEs inhibitors, another therapeutic target against DN. Ruboxistaurin, telmizartan, rapamycin, fenofibrate, aliskiren, and manidipine are some FDA approved pharmacotherapeutics effective against DN via diverse mechanisms. Beside this, some therapeutic agents are still waiting for FDA approval and few drugs without FDA approval are also prescribed in some countries for the management of DN. Despite the medications available in the market to treat DN, the involvement of multiple mechanisms makes it difficult to choose an optimum therapeutic agent. Therefore, much research is required to find out new therapeutic agent/strategies for an adequate pharmacotherapy of DN.

US$19.90

PMID: 27568833

DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.08.022


Other references

Ye, Q.; Liu, L.; Chen, Z.; Hong, L., 2016: Analysis of chlorophenols in environmental water using polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene as an extraction material coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography. In this work, polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene nanocomposites were synthesized by a simple solvothermal reaction and self-polymerization of dopamine, and the as-made nanocomposites were successfully applied as an effective adsorbent for the p...

Grey, P.R., 1970: Butterflies in the northern Tyrol. Bull. amat. Ent. Soc.: 29: 17-21

Amend, T.; Hagmann, J.; Amend, S., 1999: Local people at the centre of forest and nature conservation and development. Protected area management is the conventional tool for nature/forest conservation and maintenance of biodiversity. Over the last century, different approaches to involving rural people have evolved. Initially natural parks excluded any type of hum...

Zaikokuji, K.; Sawazaki, M.; Tomari, S.; Uemura, T., 2017: Transmitral thrombectomy to treat a patient with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. A 68-year-old woman with a history of bipolar disorder was admitted to another hospital with a gastric ulcer. On admission, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy was suspected because her electrocardiogram was abnormal and the characteristic left ventricular w...

Chow, Yuh Ming; Lin, Ching Yuang; Hwang, Betau, 1993: Serum and urinary interleukin-6 levels as predicting factors of Kawasaki disease activity. Acta Paediatrica Sinica 34(2): 77-83

Michelena-Saval, J.M.; Gonzalez-Funes, P., 1988: Contribution to the knowledge of the family aphidiidae in spain iii. pauesia quilis 1931 hymenoptera. By this work the genus Pauesia Quilis in the spanish mediterranean area is studied and the material of the different Spanish collections. (QUILIS and CHALVER) is reviewed. The only valid record is P. unilachni (Gahnan, 1926) since the rest of the...

Allen W.M.C., 1974: Colonic cleansing for barium enema. British Journal of Radiology 47(564): 911

Horvat, M.; Croce, R.; Pitetti, K.H.; Fernhall, B., 1999: Comparison of isokinetic peak force and work parameters in youth with and without mental retardation. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare isokinetic knee (flexion and extension) strength of nondisabled youth (ND; 15 males, 15 females; males = 12.7 +- 2 yr; females = 13.4 +- 2 yr) and youths with mental retardations (MR, 17 males + 13...

Kaufman L.; Kaufman J.H.; Wang J Z., 1991: On cortical folds and neuromagnetic fields. A folded cortical source of neuromagnetic fields, similar in configuration to the visual cortex, was simulated. Cortical activity was modelled by different distributions of independent current dipoles. The map of the summed fields of the dipoles o...

Kassab, A., 1980: Rural studies in Tunisia. The book gathers together the results of research in rural geography carried out in different regions of Tunisia, and particularly in the northern highland Tell area, which have already been published in various Tunisian and French journals (Revue...