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Mito-FLAG with Ara-C as bolus versus continuous infusion in recurrent or refractory AML--long-term results of a prospective randomized intergroup study of the East German Study Group Hematology/Oncology (OSHO) and the Study Alliance Leukemia (SAL)

, : Mito-FLAG with Ara-C as bolus versus continuous infusion in recurrent or refractory AML--long-term results of a prospective randomized intergroup study of the East German Study Group Hematology/Oncology (OSHO) and the Study Alliance Leukemia (SAL). Annals of Oncology 26(7): 1434-1440

For patients with primary refractory or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML), no treatment of choice has until now been defined to date. Cytarabine (Ara-C) is a key drug in the treatment of AML patients, there is still uncertainly regarding its optimal dose and infusion schedule. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of the Ara-C infusion schedule used as part of an intensive salvage regimen, in patients with relapsed or refractory AML. A total of 252 adult patients (median age 59 years) with relapsed or refractory AML were randomly allocated to receive either Mito-FLAG with Ara-C as bolus (B) (1000 mg/m(2) over 1 h, every 12 h, days 1-5), or continuous infusion (CI) (150 mg/m(2) over 24 h, days 1-5) in combination with mitoxantrone, fludarabine, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation was offered as consolidation therapy. Primary end point was the rate of complete remissions (CRs) after the first cycle of Mito-FLAG. The CR rates after Mito-FLAG (B) and Mito-FLAG (CI) were 54% and 43%, respectively (P = 0.1). There was no statistical difference between rates of grade 3/4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, mucositis, renal, and liver toxicity. More infections occurred, however, after Mito-FLAG (B) compared with Mito-FLAG (CI) (80% versus 69%, P = 0.01). The early death rate by day 42 was 13% in both arms. Median disease-free survival was comparable in the two arms (7.8 versus 7.1 months, P = 0.53) as was overall survival (7.1 versus 6.6 months, P = 0.53). A 5-day course of Ara-C 2 × 1000 mg/m(2) administered as bolus versus Ara-C 150 mg/m(2) administered by CI (in combination with mitoxantrone, fludarabine, and G-CSF), resulted in a nonsignificant trend in response rates in favor of Mito-FLAG (B) at the selected dose levels, but no differences in the survival outcome in relapsed or refractory AML. LN_NN_2004_39/EudraCT number 2014-000083-18.


PMID: 25922062

DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdv205

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