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Unravelling the complex drug-drug interactions of the cardiovascular drugs, verapamil and digoxin, with P-glycoprotein

, : Unravelling the complex drug-drug interactions of the cardiovascular drugs, verapamil and digoxin, with P-glycoprotein. Bioscience Reports 36(2): -

Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and associated toxicity from cardiovascular drugs represents a major problem for effective co-administration of cardiovascular therapeutics. A significant amount of drug toxicity from DDIs occurs because of drug interactions and multiple cardiovascular drug binding to the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp), which is particularly problematic for cardiovascular drugs because of their relatively low therapeutic indexes. The calcium channel antagonist, verapamil and the cardiac glycoside, digoxin, exhibit DDIs with Pgp through non-competitive inhibition of digoxin transport, which leads to elevated digoxin plasma concentrations and digoxin toxicity. In the present study, verapamil-induced ATPase activation kinetics were biphasic implying at least two verapamil-binding sites on Pgp, whereas monophasic digoxin activation of Pgp-coupled ATPase kinetics suggested a single digoxin-binding site. Using intrinsic protein fluorescence and the saturation transfer double difference (STDD) NMR techniques to probe drug-Pgp interactions, verapamil was found to have little effect on digoxin-Pgp interactions at low concentrations of verapamil, which is consistent with simultaneous binding of the drugs and non-competitive inhibition. Higher concentrations of verapamil caused significant disruption of digoxin-Pgp interactions that suggested overlapping and competing drug-binding sites. These interactions correlated to drug-induced conformational changes deduced from acrylamide quenching of Pgp tryptophan fluorescence. Also, Pgp-coupled ATPase activity kinetics measured with a range of verapamil and digoxin concentrations fit well to a DDI model encompassing non-competitive and competitive inhibition of digoxin by verapamil. The results and previous transport studies were combined into a comprehensive model of verapamil-digoxin DDIs encompassing drug binding, ATP hydrolysis, transport and conformational changes.


PMID: 26823559

DOI: 10.1042/BSR20150317

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