+ Resolve Article
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter

+ Translate
+ Subscribe to Site Feed
GeoScience Most Shared ContentMost Shared Content

Upper limb and trunk muscle activity patterns during seated and standing cycling

, : Upper limb and trunk muscle activity patterns during seated and standing cycling. Journal of Sports Sciences (): 1-8

NlmCategory="UNASSIGNED">The objective of this study is to clarify the functional roles of upper limb muscles during standing and seated cycling when power output increases. We investigated the activity of seven upper limb and trunk muscles using surface electromyography (EMG). Power outputs ranged from ~100-700 W with a pedalling frequency of 90 revolution per minute. Three-dimensional handle and pedal forces were simultaneously recorded. Using non-negative matrix factorisation, we extracted muscle synergies and we analysed the integrated EMG and EMG temporal patterns. Most of the muscles showed tonic activity that became more phasic as power output increased. Three muscle synergies were identified, associated with (i) torso stabilisation, (ii) compensation/generation of trunk accelerations and (iii) upper body weight support. Synergies were similar for seated and standing positions (Pearson's r > 0.7), but synergy #2 (biceps brachii, deltoidus and brachioradialis) was shifted forward during the cycle (~7% of cycle). The activity levels of synergy #1 (latissimus dorsi and erector spinae) and synergy #2 increased markedly above ~500 W (i.e., ~+40-70% and +130-190%) and during periods corresponding to ipsi- and contralateral downstrokes, respectively. Our study results suggest that the upper limb and trunk muscles may play important roles in cycling when high power outputs are required.


PMID: 27136397

DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2016.1179777

Other references

Thompson, R.S., 1996: What have HMOs learned about clinical prevention services? An examination of the experience at Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound. Over the last 20 years, HMOs have begun to develop population- and evidence-based systems for their clinical prevention services. Because of their integrated information systems and staff communications, HMOs are uniquely positioned to help physic...

McGuire, E.A.; Hockett, R.D.; Pollock, K.M.; Bartholdi, M.F.; O'Brien, S.J.; Korsmeyer, S.J., 1989: The t(11;14)(p15;q11) in a T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line activates multiple transcripts, including Ttg-1, a gene encoding a potential zinc finger protein. Interchromosomal translocations within lymphoid neoplasms frequently involve the antigen receptor genes. We cloned the breakpoints of the t(11;14)(p15;q11) in a CD3-negative T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line (RPMI 8402) in order to ide...

Blum, Harold Francis, 1941: Photodynamic action and diseases caused by ligh. An excellent sum-mary of photo sensitizers in relation to biological effects, in 4 parts. I, The "Introduction" (44 pages) deals with the nature of radiation and its biological effects. II, "Photodynamic action," the facts, mec...

Engelmann, U.; Schroeter, A.; Baur, U.; Schroeder, A.; Werner, O.; Wolsiffer, K.; Baur, H.J.; Goransson, B.; Boralv, E.; Meinzer, H.P., 1996: Teleradiology system medicus. Lemke, H U [Author], Vannier, M W [Author], Inamura, K [Author], Farman, A G [Author] International Congress Series; CAR '96: Computer assisted radiology 537-542

Scoville, A.B., 1964: Tennessee Camp For Diabetic Children. Journal of the Tennessee Medical Association 57: 214-214

Leonard, J.I.; Abbrecht, P.H., 1974: A method for continuously monitoring blood volume. Journal of Applied Physiology 36(4): 506-508

Holloway, P.M., 1989: Effect of chlorhexidine on bacterial pathogenicity. Journal of Hospital Infection 13(1): 96-96

Magaji, Y., 1974: Electrophoretic analyses of soluble extracts of Trypanosoma vivax and of the sera of its normal and abnormal hosts. Electrophoretic analyses of soluble extracts of a virulent strain of T. vivax and of sera of cattle, sheep, goat, dog, donkey, monkey, baboon and the small laboratory animals were performed by the differential gel technique. Similarities were obse...

Simko V., 1984: Dietary challenge with high doses of amino acids phenyl alanine tryptophan histidine and methionine in liver cirrhosis prone to hepatic encephalopathy. Because of the controversial nature of reports concerning the pole of dietary protein and branched and aromatic amino acids, the hypothesis that some dietary amino acids promote hepatic encephalopathy was tested. Two patients with alcoholic liver...

Showalter, Mark R., 1999: Neptune's misbehaving rings. New observations have reopened the debate concerning the dynamics of the ring arcs of Neptune. In this issue, Sicardy et al. and Dumas et al. report that the ring arcs, discovered nearly 15 years ago, still exist and remain narrowly confined in sp...